How to prevent pests and diseases?
• Insects, fungi, bacteria and viruses preferentially attack weak plants. Therefore, to prevent, nothing better than to keep them strong and vigorous.
• Buy quality plants, well grown, lush and roots are not crowded.
• inspect it and if they bring disease, pest or wound.
• Native species are more resistant to pests and diseases than exotic species. Use them in your garden.
• If the plant is shade, not sun plants. Example, Hosta burn in full sun most of the day and would be weak.
• Select species suited to the characteristics of the soil in your garden. For example, the image below is a problem of iron deficiency (iron chlorosis), usually caused by a calcareous soil be combined with susceptible species. Therefore, in soils such as Hortensia acidophilic plants, Gardenia, Azalea, Rhododendron, Heather, Camelia, etc. ..
• There are mixtures of grass for shade, others are more appropriate to support much trampling, to resist drought, etc. Always choose the right thing to not suffer and fall prey to parasites.
• If your garden environment is Seiridium fungus attacks in hedges or copies of cypress, macrocarpa or Arizona, do not plant these species, but others that are not susceptible to Seiridium because there exists high risk of infection. Is a clear example of a preventive measure.
• Do not plant very dense. This leads to competition among individuals for space, water, nutrients and plant at the end are weak and thin, making them more susceptible to pests and diseases.
• If a fungus has wiped out an infected plant roots, never again to plant the same in the same place, or if you do, replace the land on the other.
• It is a mistake to plant a rosebush in the same place occupied by another for over 6 years. The soil contains fungi and is “exhausted.”
• Excessive watering leads to root rot and is “spoiled” for irrigation, suffer when they lack a certain time. Nor should go thirsty plants.
• Avoid wetting leaves and flowers because they favor disease development. Irrigation at the bottom.
• Excess nitrogen makes for more tender plants for insects, for example, mites (red spider) increase their attack.
• Collect and burn the leaves that have been attacked by fungi.
• Avoid wounds and cuts around plants because fungi as Botrytis fall, cankers on the trunk and branches, bacteria …
• Solve the tangle of trees and shrubs by pruning for better ventilation and insulation inside the cup. This reduces the proliferation of fungi and other pathogens.
• Disinfect pruning tools to avoid passing bacteria or virus from one plant to another.
• Some plants to repel pests as a natural repellent. It is not 100% effective, but is a supplement that helps. For example, a garden or scented garden surrounded by some as Sage, Rue, Rosemary or Lavender, or between the common culture, mint, tarragon, thyme or basil.
How to cure pests?
• Uses as little as possible pesticides or, if possible, nothing. Reasons:
Pose a risk to animals and people, especially young children touch everything and take it to the mouth.
The pests are becoming stronger and more resilient.
• Use of insecticides and fungicides used in Organic Agriculture: Copper (Bordeaux mixture), Sulphur, Slurry Ortigas, potash soap, Bacillus thuringiensis (biological insecticide), etc. ..
• Our goal should not eliminate 100% of individuals, but keep pests within acceptable limits.
• Many people use pesticides as a last resort to save the plant in cases of serious infection or infestation. Sometimes it’s hard to do without them, for example, to the Butterfly Geranium, or very wet weather in spring, for the potato blight that if fungicides are not applied, it takes almost forever.
• Submit to the plants, including trees, to a shower with pressurized water hose to pull the ground insects.
• Review the plants and hand capture as much as possible: beetles, caterpillars, worms, snails and slugs … Mealybugs removed.
• Pruning sanitation
To avoid spreading an evil, pruning the affected parts. Examples: Seiridium fungus affecting cypress, macrocarpa and Arizona DED del Olmo, the fungus Botrytis, if not removed rotting leaves and branches spread to the rest of the plant. etc. ..
Oloríficas substances are emitted by insects, for example, of a sexual nature. Today chemically synthesized pheromone of many species that are pests. Are used for different purposes:
To capture males.
To confuse the males and do not mate.
To follow the evolution of a pest.
• Trap color
Trap blue and yellow traps Trips for whitefly and aphids. The plates are coated with an adhesive and stick insects.
• Biological control
All pests have natural enemies that we must protect and promote. Collects insects and distribute such. They also sell specialized companies.
Example of predatory insect is the Ladybug, which eat the aphids.
As an example of insect parasitoids can put the avispillas which lay their eggs inside aphids and what they eat inside.
Insectivorous birds. To facilitate their presence can put feeders, drinkers, nest boxes for birds and plant a variety of flowers.
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